China will ban all imports of solid waste from 1 January 2021, authorities have said.
With the move towards greater source separation and a circular economy, the role of clear and consistent education is now more important than ever, Glenn Eales of EnviroCom explains.
The Western Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils (WSROC) says delays in establishing a national waste policy are causing a processing capacity shortfall in NSW.
WSROC President Barry Calvert said the next elected government must act to stimulate local recycling capacity, ensure more products are recycled and develop new markets for recycled products.
In the lead up to the election both major parties committed to upgrading recycling infrastructure, establishing local markets for recycled content and dealing with plastic pollution.
Neither the Labor or Liberal Party has committed to developing a national regulatory framework for waste management in the country however.
“Waste collection is managed by local governments, however international forces acting on the waste industry at present are far beyond the capacity of local communities to address,” Mr Calvert said.
“The introduction of the China National Sword Policy in 2017, and the rise and fall of international commodity markets have created an unsustainable situation for Australia’s waste management sector.”
Mr Calvert said without federal action the cost of managing Australia’s waste will increase, and environmental outcomes may be compromised.
“Since China’s recycling ban, we have seen much discussion around amendments to Australia’s National Waste Policy but very little action,” Mr Calvert said.
“This delay has put extreme pressure on councils as they try and reduce impacts to local communities and ensure environmental outcomes are being met.”
Mr. Calvert said by 2021 Sydney will experience a shortfall of over 1.4 million tonnes of waste processing capacity due to population growth.
“To meet that shortfall we will need to build around 16 new waste facilities,” Mr Calvert said.
“We need to stimulate local recycling markets to ensure we have the capacity to responsibly manage our own waste, which would create opportunities for new jobs and positive outcomes for the environment.”
Dick Gross, City of Port Phillip Mayor, explains the mechanisms required to help local governments overcome kerbside recycling market failures.
Applied Machinery’s Christian McLean sees the recycling industry’s challenges as an opportunity to grow the secondary reprocessing market.
Retail property firm Vicinity Centres is taking great strides towards diverting more materials away from landfill, with bold plans across food waste and decentralised resource recovery.
India’s Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has announced changes to hazardous waste laws, reversing exemptions from its 2016 ban on solid plastic imports.
Under previous laws, companies in designated economic development areas were exempt from the ban.
The change comes after the country saw an increase in waste imports as a result of the market vacuum generated by China’s National Sword policy.
The export oriented units clause, which gave local governments the ability to procure resources from abroad, has also been removed.
The ministry said changes were made in accordance with the ‘Make in India initiative’ by simplifying procedures and upholding principals of sustainable development and lessened environmental impact.
The ‘Make in India’ initiative was launched in 2014 with the goal of making India a sustainable global manufacturing hub.
The change follows India’s commitment to phase out single-use plastics by 2022.
Some of the features of the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management & Transboundary Movement) Amendment Rules, 2019, include prohibiting solid plastic was from being imported into the country, including in special economic zones and by export orientated units.
Electrical and electronic assemblies and components manufactured in and exported from India, if found defective can now be imported back into the country, within a year of export, without obtaining permission from the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
The National Waste and Recycling Industry Council CEO Rose Read highlights the association’s priorities in 2019 and its long-term plan for resource recovery in Australia.
The NSW Environment Protection Authority is awarding more than $3.6 million to waste and reprocessing facilities and manufacturing plants to increase recycling.
The grants have been awarded under the NSW Environment Protection Authority’s $802 million Waste Less, Recycle More initiative, the largest waste and recycling funding program in Australia.
NSW EPA Executive Director of Waste and Resource Recovery Carmen Dwyer said the funding will help waste and recycling facilities invest in new infrastructure and respond to changing recycling markets.
“Nine projects have been successful in accessing a total of $3,654,000 in funding through the Product Improvement Program.
“The funding will support licensed waste facilities, reprocessing facilities and manufacturing plants to increase recycling of waste materials from households and businesses, in a cost-effective manner.
“Projects funded include boosting the recycling of foam, increasing recycling of kerbside plastics, reducing contamination in recycling of paper and plastics and processing crushed glass for use in road base,” she said.
Ms Dwyer said the funding will also help mitigate the effects of China’s National Sword Policy by improving the quality of recycled materials, increasing the capacity to recover and reprocess waste materials and stimulate local remanufacturing capacity in NSW.
The Australian Packaging Covenant Organisation (APCO) this week launched a Packaging Materials Flow Analysis (MFA), a new report developed in partnership with the Institute of Sustainable Futures (ISF) mapping the current state of post-consumer packaging in Australia.
Commissioned on behalf of APCO, the report highlights a compelling need to improve packaging recovery and recycling rates across all material streams.
In 2017/18 Australians generated an estimated 4.4 million tonnes of total packaging waste, with 68 per cent of this collected, and 56 per cent of the collection total recovered by recycling efforts. This ranged from 32 per cent for plastics and up to 72 per cent for paper streams – highlighting a significant opportunity to improve waste management practices to achieve higher recovery rates.
Of the 4.4 million tonnes, the report shows 44 per cent was landfilled, 33 per cent went to local secondary material utilisation, 19 per cent exported, four per cent stockpiled and more than 0.5 per cent to energy recovery.
The MFA Report is one of several APCO initiatives being conducted during the foundation phase of the targets (2019-2020) – the groundwork stage that focuses on research, engaging stakeholders and setting baselines and frameworks.
APCO CEO Brooke Donnelly said that to achieve the 2025 National Packaging Targets, we need to first understand the journey materials take along the entire supply chain and establish a baseline of data to measure change and interventions. She said that the MFA is first step in this process.
As a critical first step in achieving the 2025 national packaging targets for all material to be reusable, recyclable or compostable, the report outlines the current journey of Australia’s packaging waste from bin to landfill or reprocessing, identifies significant data and infrastructure challenges in the system and models five potential solutions for the future.
- New national targets set within 2025 packaging plan
- Packaging progress
- Scrunching the issue of soft plastics
One of the challenges is the major losses to landfill to recoverable materials occurring before waste is collected for sorting at materials recycling facilitates (MRFs) or container deposit scheme collections. The report attributes this to incorrect disposal of packaging wastes by households and businesses.
“Better management of this waste at the source, through improved source separation, is important. Critically, consumer education and awareness raising around appropriate disposal and collection channels, as well as smarter design of packaging for recycling, are also key strategies. These are already supported by the new Australasian Recycling label (ARL) and the Packaging Recyclability Evaluation Portal (PREP),” the report says.
Additionally, the report shows the opportunity to increase sorting efficiency by diverting materials, especially glass, from kerbside to the expanding container deposit scheme collections. It finds better sorting equipment will also support improvements in contaminant removal. The report shows there are about 100 MRFs in operation across Australia, with throughput capacities ranging from 5000 to 250,000 tonnes per annum. Around 45 per cent of the total packaging waste stream for 2017/17 gets directed to MRFs and their capabilities for efficiently sorting co-mingled and highly contaminated waste is indicated to be a major factor limiting packaging sorting efficiency in Australia.
“Upgrading existing MRF capabilities is difficult and expensive owing to market uncertainties (e.g., caused by Chinese waste import restrictions), making the case for improving up-stream source separation and collection stronger,” the report says.
Future modelling shows potential to achieve an overall packaging waste recovery rate of 77 per cent, assuming a range of strategies are adopted to address losses across the whole chain, from collection to processing.
With glass packaging, the estimated recovery rate is just over 50 per cent and 23 per cent of glass waste disposed to the residual stream. About 80,000 tonnes of glass is collected and sorted through container deposit collection systems.
The investigation in particular highlights the importance of improving source separation, particularly for plastics to address residuals, a priority for paper in reducing contamination (embedded glass fines) that could be achieved with separated paper or glass separation and diverting glass to CDS to improve the quality of the stream to be suitable for bottle to bottle recycling.
Institute for Sustainable Futures (UTS) Research Director and co-author of the report Dr Nick Florin said that there is great potential to step-up material recovery from the current overall recovery rate of 56 per cent and at the same time increase demand for recycled materials to drive the transition to a circular economy for packaging.
“APCO, as the central product stewardship organisation, is well placed to support this coordinated transition that involves cooperation between consumers, designers, recyclers and packaging manufactures,” Dr Florin said.
The MFA also highlighted significant data and infrastructure gaps that need to be addressed before the 2025 targets can be achieved. These findings will be used to inform additional packaging and recycling research to develop a complete picture of the current system.
Ms Donnelly said we can’t implement effective and meaningful changes to the system if we don’t first have a complete and accurate picture.
“A collaborative approach will be critical to building this. The challenge ahead of us requires a complete transformation of the current system. Over the next 12 months, APCO will be leading an ambitious agenda of projects to build on the findings of the MFA. We look forward to working closely with all stakeholders as we transition to a circular model for packaging in Australia,” she said.
Throughout 2018 APCO also facilitated a series of five, year-long industry working groups attended by more than 80 industry members from across the value chain and government to explore solutions to problematic packaging types (including glass, polymer coated paperboard (PCPB), soft plastics, biodegradable and compostable packaging, and expanded polystyrene).
In 2019, APCO will be co-ordinating 22 new projects to build on the findings of the MFA and the 2018 working groups. These will include further detailed research into packaging consumption and recycling to establish baselines for the 2025 targets, developing targeted design resources to improve packaging recyclability, and developing strategies to address problematic packaging, including plastics.
To read the full APCO Packaging Material Flow Analysis 2018, visit the APCO website.